Useful Guide To Spelling

Spelling is the use of letters to form a word or words. Specifically, the terms spelling and its synonym orthography usually imply that the letters are used according to accepted conventions. Writing an alphabet is basically phonetic, but there is no alphabet has ever perfectly presented a language. English is written with 26 letters but […]

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Plurals

SINGULAR NOUNS  Add s to form the plural of most singular nouns.  Example: engine, engines; vessel, vessels   COMPOUND NOUNS Generally add s to the most important part of a compound noun. When a word ends in –ful, add s to the end of it.  Example: presidents-elect; courthouses; cupfuls   IRREGULAR NOUNS The plurals of […]

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Prefixes

PUNCTUATION Write most prefixes closed (no hyphen). Example: preestablished; selfsame; reform; but: anti-American; self-evident; re-form (to form again)   DOUBLE S When a word begins with s, keep the s after adding the prefix mis- or dis-. Example: spell, misspell; step, misstep

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Suffixes and verb endings

WORDS THAT DOUBLE THE FINAL CONSONANT When a one-syllable word ends with one vowel followed by one consonant, double the final consonant in most cases before adding a word ending starting with a vowel.  Example:  drop, dropped; ship, shipped; but: bus, buses When a multisyllable word ends with one vowel followed by one consonant and […]

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Rules Of Punctuation

APOSTROPHE ( ’ )      Used to show possession, omission, and some plurals; omit it for plurals if s can stand alone without confusion. Example: p’s and q’s; 4’s and 5’s; 1990s; YMCAs To show possession, add an apostrophe and s to a singular word; omit s if the word already ends in ss; add an […]

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Parts Of Speech And Grammatical Terms

Parts of Speech There are eight parts of speech, namely: adjectives; adverbs; conjunctions, interjections; nouns; prepositions; pronouns and verbs. Examples:                noun       verb           adverb              preposition                      noun The         dog         slept        […]

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Grammatical Terms

ACTIVE VOICE             Indicates that the subject of a sentence is providing the action. See also PASSIVE VOICE. Example: I wrote the report.   ANTECEDENT Noun or pronoun to which another pronoun refers. Example: Peter (noun) finished his (pronoun) report.   APPOSITIVE Identifies or explains another word(s). Example: Juan de la Cruz, engineer, suggested further […]

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Basic Forms Of Pronouns

Pronoun                             Subjective/Objective/Possessive Personal First-person singular I/me/my, mine First-person plural we/us/our, ours Second-person singular and plural you/you/your, yours Third-person singular he, she, it/him, her, it/his, her, hers, its Third-person plural they/them/their, theirs Relative                              who, that, which/whom, that, which/whose, of which Interogative                        who, which, what/whom, which, […]

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Verb Tenses

PRESENT Indicates action taking place now or habitual action or is used to express an idea generally accepted as true; simple present uses no auxiliary verb; progressive present is a combination of the present tense of to be and the present participle of the main verb. Example: He works hard (simple present). He is working […]

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Conjugation of a Regular Verb

Tense                           Indicative Mood (Active Voice) Present                         I stop, he stops, we stop, you stop, they stop Present perfect              I have stopped, he has stopped, we have stopped, you have stopped,    they have stopped Past                             I stopped, he stopped, we stopped, you stopped, they stopped   Tense                           Indicative Mood (Active Voice) Past Perfect                  I […]

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