Plurals

SINGULAR NOUNS

 Add s to form the plural of most singular nouns.

 Example: engine, engines; vessel, vessels

 

COMPOUND NOUNS

Generally add s to the most important part of a compound noun. When a word ends in –ful, add s to the end of it.

 Example: presidents-elect; courthouses; cupfuls

 

IRREGULAR NOUNS

The plurals of some words are formed by a change in spelling, or they retain the same form in the plural.

 Example: child, children; corps, corps

 

NOUNS ENDING IN O

When a word ends with a vowel followed by o, add s. When a word ends with a consonant followed by o, add es in most cases, s in a few cases, and either s or es in a few cases.

 Example: studio, studios; hero, heroes; memo, memos; zero, zeros, zeroes

 

NOUNS ENDING IN Y

When a word ends with a consonant followed by y, change the y to i and add es. When the y follows a vowel, add s.

 Example:  category, categories; attorney, attorneys

 

 NOUNS ENDING IN CH, SH, SS, OR X

 When a word ends in ch, sh, ss, or x, add es.

 Example: church, churches; fish, fishes; glass, glasses; box, boxes

 

NOUNS ENDING IN F, FF, OR FE

 When a word ends in f, ff, or fe, add s or change the f to v and add es. But no clear cut rules exists to tell you when to change the f to v.

 Example: proof, proofs; cliff, cliffs; safe, safes; but: shelf, shelves