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1. When an engine fitted with a hydraulic starting system starts up, the starter is protected from the higher speed of the engine by __________.


2. The purpose of the engine-driven hydraulic pump in an auxiliary diesel engine hydraulic starting system is to __________.


3. In a Bendix starter drive, the pinion engagement with the flywheel ring gear is initiated by __________.


4. When calculating the indicated power developed in a diesel engine cylinder, 1 horsepower is equivalent to '33,000 foot-pounds per minute'. What conversion factor would be used if the values are based on metric 'kilogram-meters per minute'?


5. The speed of the camshaft in a two-stroke/cycle diesel engine, running at 950 RPM, is __________.


6. Diesel engines are classified as reciprocating internal combustion engines because they __________.


7. What determines the number of events occurring in a cycle of operation in an internal combustion engine?


8. The thermal energy produced by an internal combustion engine is transformed into __________.


9. In describing engine operation, what does the term "cycle" mean?


10. The highest pressure in a diesel engine cylinder normally occurs __________.


11. Modern marine diesel engines equipped with mechanical fuel injection operate on a combustion cycle which is __________.


12. The load is always placed on the lower half of the main bearings in a/an __________.


13. The camshaft drive is designed to maintain proper camshaft speed relative to crankshaft speed. In maintaining this relationship, the camshaft drive causes the camshaft to rotate at __________.


14. Which of the terms listed below represents the operational speed at which excessive engine vibration is created?


15. The bore of a diesel engine cylinder describes the __________.


16. The cubic inch (or liter) displacement of a cylinder is determined by the diameter of the piston and the __________.


17. The compression ratio of a diesel engine refers to the ratio between the __________.


18. If the compression ratio is increased on any diesel engine, __________.


19. The theoretical minimum compression ratio necessary to ensure compression ignition in a direct injection diesel engine is __________.


20. Which of the following relationships exists between the temperatures developed in a combustion space, and the compression ratio of the engine?


21. The ratio of the brake horsepower to the indicated horsepower of a diesel engine is its __________.


22. The most important factor in engine performance is the actual power output at the end of the crankshaft available for doing work. This is known as __________.


23. The average pressure exerted on a piston during each power stroke is termed __________.


24. Most practical diesel engines today operate on a cycle which is a combination of the Diesel and Otto cycles. In this process, compression ignition __________.


25. The minimum fuel oil delivery pressure required for efficient injection depends primarily on the __________.


26. Fuel injection systems are designed to primarily meter fuel, atomize fuel, and __________.


27. The degree of fuel atomization in a diesel engine cylinder depends primarily on __________.


28. The purpose of the delivery check valve used in a diesel fuel injection jerk pump is to __________.


29. Injection pressure in a common rail fuel system is controlled by __________.


30. The amount of fuel delivered by a unit injector is controlled by the __________.


31. In a unit injector, an upper helix and lower helix are machined in the lower part of the plunger for __________.


32. control rack to a unit injector regulates fuel delivery by __________.


33. A main propulsion diesel engine is normally shut down by __________.


34. The over speeding of the diesel engine driving an electric generator could cause __________.


35. Load control on a diesel engine is accomplished by __________.


36. Diesel engine automated control systems may utilize sensing devices of dual function, with sensing ranges providing both alarm and engine shut down capability. Which of the key points listed would only require an alarm sensor?


37. Which of the types of reduction gearing listed is best suited for medium speed main propulsion units?


38. Reduction gear casings are vented in order to __________.


39. The minimum speed an engine must attain before ignition can occur depends upon __________.


40. Heat for igniting the fuel oil in the cylinder of a diesel engine is generated by the __________.


41. The main operating characteristic of diesel engines which distinguishes them from other internal combustion engines is the __________.


42. Theoretical perfect combustion in a diesel engine yields by-products of __________.


43. The formation of carbon monoxide in diesel exhaust gases is reduced by __________.


44. Turbulence of the compressed air charge in a diesel engine cylinder increases __________.


45. In a diesel engine, after ignition of the fuel occurs, but before the piston reaches TDC, there is little change in the cylinder __________.


46. In the starting process of a diesel engine, the main object is to attain the compression conditions sufficient to __________.


47. The greatest turbulence in a diesel engine cylinder is created by the __________.


48. What is the term given to the process of breaking up fuel oil into very fine particles for better combustion?


49. Proper atomization of fuel in diesel engine combustion chambers will __________.


50. Fuel oil penetration into the cylinder of a diesel engine is __________.


51. Fuel droplets injected into a diesel engine cylinder must have adequate penetration to __________.


52. Maintaining the proper fuel oil temperature will result in __________.


53. A diesel engine operating at a light load, when compared to operating at heavy load has an air/fuel ratio that is __________.


54. As engine RPM is increased from idle speed to full load speed, which of the conditions listed will decrease?


55. The time between injection and ignition of the fuel is known as __________.


56. When is fuel injected into a cylinder of diesel engines?


57. For a given fuel, a change in the compression ratio will affect the ignition lag by which of the listed means?


58. The rate of pressure rise during the period following fuel ignition in a diesel engine is influenced by the length of the ignition delay period and the __________.


59. The pressure in an operating diesel engine cylinder continues to rise for a short period after the piston passes top dead center as a result of the __________.


60. Which statement about diesel engine combustion is true?


61. In a large, slow-speed, main propulsion diesel engine, which of the parts listed is under tension when the engine is running?


62. In diesel engines designed with a crosshead, the motion of the piston rod can be described as __________.


63. In a large slow-speed propulsion diesel engine, the side thrust on the crosshead is the direct result of _____.


64. While underway, which of the following would be the FIRST step in reversing a direct reversing large, slow-speed, main propulsion, diesel engine?


65. In a large slow-speed propulsion diesel engine, the force applied to the piston is __________.


66. Cast iron pistons used in large propulsion diesel engines are constructed with __________.


67. Which of the following procedures should be carried out when a large, low-speed, diesel engine is operated with one cylinder secured?


68. During maneuvering operations for a direct reversing large, low-speed, main propulsion diesel engine, which of the following actions is used to stop the shaft from turning prior to changing the engine rotation for a vessel with moderate headway?


69. Valve cages are used on some large diesel engines to __________.


70. A diesel engine crankcase ventilation system __________.


71. A safety crankcase cover differs from other diesel engine access doors in that it is fitted with a __________.


72. Which of the listed design features is most common with a two-stroke cycle, low- speed main propulsion diesel engine?


73. The opening of an exhaust valve on a modern, large, low-speed, main propulsion diesel engine, may be actuated by __________.


74. The closing of the exhaust valves used on a modern, large, low-speed, main propulsion diesel engine may be directly provided by __________.


75. The insertion of shims between the foot of a marine type connecting rod and a bearing box would result in __________.


76. In a two-stroke/cycle, opposed piston, diesel engine, one crankshaft operates several crank angles in advance of the other crankshaft to __________.


77. During the power stroke, the side thrust of a trunk type piston is a result of the angle __________.


78. Which of the bearings listed below is most widely used for the main and connecting rod bearings of a modern high-speed diesel engine?


79. Which of the components listed is only found in an opposed piston engine?


80. Auxiliary diesel engines can be automatically shut down as a result of __________.


81. Lube oil pumps taking suction from the sump of most small marine engines are usually __________.


82. When a generator diesel engine is operated at partial load, as compared to full load, a decrease will occur in the average __________.


83. Which of the routine maintenance procedures listed is required for starting air receivers?


84. When starting a diesel engine at temperatures below 70°F, the frictional resistance to turning will be __________.


85. Starting a large low-speed propulsion diesel engine on diesel fuel during cold weather conditions, will be made easier by __________.


86. Starting air check valves are held firmly on their seats by __________.


87. A two-stroke/cycle diesel engine requires less starting air than a four-stroke/cycle diesel engine, of equal displacement, because the two-stroke/cycle diesel engine __________.


88. In addition to the main starting air compressor, another air compressor, driven by a separate power source, is installed to __________.


89. Where is the air charge for an air starting system stored?


90. An accumulator used in a hydraulic starting system is generally located between the __________.


91. Which of the listed diesel engine starting systems is most susceptible to difficulties in cold weather?


92. Starting systems for large, direct reversing, main propulsion diesel engines are usually __________.


93. The pilot valves in an air pilot starting system for a two-stroke/cycle, direct-reversing, main propulsion diesel engine are operated by either a ported distributor disc or a/an __________.


94. A six-cylinder, four-stroke/cycle diesel engine is fitted with a rotary distributor type air starting system. The speed of the rotating distributor disc is __________.


95. When an air started, four-stroke/cycle diesel engine is being cranked over, the starting air is admitted to each cylinder during the beginning of its __________.


96. In a medium-speed marine propulsion engine equipped with direct admission air starting valves, the cylinders without air starting valves fire first because the __________.


97. Air motors used for starting some auxiliary diesel engines are generally the type known as a/an __________.


98. Which internal combustion engine starting system uses a vane type fluid motor?


99. Hydraulic starters are installed on many lifeboat diesel engines instead of comparable air start systems, because __________.


100. Which type of starter motor is normally used in a diesel engine hydraulic starting system?


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