Verb Tenses

PRESENT

Indicates action taking place now or habitual action or is used to express an idea generally accepted as true; simple present uses no auxiliary verb; progressive present is a combination of the present tense of to be and the present participle of the main verb.

Example: He works hard (simple present). He is working today (progressive present).

PRESENT PERFECT

            Indicates action completed at the time of writing or speaking or continuing into the present; formed by combining have or has with the past participle of the main verb.

Example: He has worked in Manila for three years.

PAST

Indicates Action completed in the past.

Example: I worked at home today.

PAST PERFECT

Indicates action completed before a definite time in the past; formed by combining had with the past participle of the main verb.

Example: The speaker had started the presentation by the time I arrived.

FUTURE

Indicates action that will take place in the future; formed by combining will or shall with the main verb.

Example: I will arrive on Monday.

FUTURE PERFECT

Indicates action that will be completed at a definite time in the future; formed by combining shall have or will have with the past participle of the main verb.

Example: They will have started on their trip before noon.

COMMON ENGLISH PREPOSITIONS

aboard barring during notwithstanding save up
about before ere of saving upon
above behind execpt off since via
across below excepting on through with
after beneath for out till without
against besides from outside till
along between in over to
amid(st) beyond inside past touching
among(st) but into pending toward(s)
around by like per under
aslant concerning mid regarding underneath
at condsidering midst respecting until
athwart down near round unto

 

Note: Many prepositions are also used as other parts of speech. Near, for example, is also used as an adverb, an adjective, and verb.

COMMON CONJUNCTIONS

also if since whereas
although lest so whereby
and neither still wherefore
as nevertheless than wherein
because nor that whereof
both notwithstanding then whereupon
but only therefore wherever
either ir though whether
except provided unless while
for save what without
however seeing when yet

COMMON IRREGULAR VERBS

Present                         Past                             Past Participle

abide                            abode                           abode

arise                             arose                            arisen

be                                 was                              been

bear                              bore                              borne

beat                              beat                              beaten/beat

become                         became                         become

begin                            began                           begun

behold                           beheld                           beheld

bid                                bide/bade                      bidden

bind                              bound                           bound

bite                               bit                                 bitten

bleed                            bled                              bled

blow                             blew                             blown

break                            broke                            broken

breed                            bred                              bred

bring                             brought                         brought

build                             built                              built

burst                             burst                             burst

buy                               bought                          bought

cast                              cast                              cast

catch                            caught                          caught

choose                          chose                           chosen

cleave                           cleft/clove/cleaved         cleft/cloven

cling                             clung                            clung

come                            came                            come

cost                              cost                              cost

creep                            crept                             crept

cut                                cut                                cut

deal                              dealt                             dealt

do                                 did                                done

draw                             drew                             drawn

drink                             drank                            drunk

drive                             drove                            driven

 

Present                         Past                             Past Participle

eat                                ate                                eaten

fall                                fell                                fallen

feed                              fed                                fed

feel                               felt                                felt

fight                              fought                           fought

find                               found                            found

flee                               fled                               fled

fling                              flung                             flung

fly                                 flew                              flown

forbid                            forbade                         forbidden

forget                            forgot                            forgotten

forsake                         forsook                         forsaken

freeze                           froze                             frozen

get                                got                                got/gotten

give                              gave                             given

go                                 went                             gone

grind                             ground                          ground

grow                             grew                             grown

have                             had                               had

hide                              hid                                hidden

hit                                 hit                                 hit

hold                              held                              held

hurt                               hurt                               hurt

keep                             kept                              kept

know                            knew                            known

lay                                laid                               laid

lead                              led                                led

leave                            left                                left

lend                              lent                               lent

let                                 let                                 let

lie (recline)                    lay                                lain

lose                              lost                               lost

make                            made                            made

mean                            meant                           meant

meet                             met                               met

pay                               paid                              paid

put                                put                                put

read                              read                              read

rid                                 rid                                 rid

ride                               rode                              ridden

rise                               rose                              risen

run                                ran                                run

say                               said                              said

see                               saw                              seen

seek                             sought                          sought

sell                               sold                              sold

 

Present                         Past                             Past Participle

 

send                             sent                              sent

set                                set                                set

shake                           shook                           shaken

shed                             shed                             shed

shoot                            shot                              shot

shrink                           shrank/shrunk                shrunk/shrunken

shut                              shut                              shut

sing                              sang                             sung

sink                              sank/sunk                     sunk

sit                                 sat                                sat

slide                             slid                               slid

sling                             slung                            slung

speak                           spoke                           spoken

speed                           sped                             sped

spend                           spent                            spent

split                              split                              split

spread                          spread                          spread

spring                           sprang/sprung                sprung

stand                            stood                            stood

steal                             stole                             stolen

stick                             stuck                            stuck

sting                             stung                            stung

strike                            struck                           struck/stricken

string                            strung                           strung

strive                            strove                           striven

swear                           swore                           sworn

sweep                           swept                           swept

swim                            swam                           swum

swing                            swung                           swung

take                              took                              taken

teach                            taught                           taught

tear                               tore                               torn

tell                                told                               told

think                             thought                         thought

throw                            threw                            thrown

thrust                            thrust                            thrust

tread                             trod                               trodden

wear                             wore                             worn

weep                            wept                             wept

win                               won                              won

wind                             wound                           wound

wring                            wrung                           wrung

write                             wrote                            written

 

Note: See also conjugation of regular verb.